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What we are going to do now is look at a different type of cylinder, which is the pin index. Now, this is a different type of cylinder, and the one we have already looked at with the integral regulator is the most common one. This is the one you tend to find in most hospitals. You won't find these. And these are used quite a lot in other sectors where people would be refilling them themselves. And one typical application would be within the scuba diving world because here, you have got a dive centre who can actually often, they can refill oxygen cylinders. So they need a different system to the standard one.

Within this, you have got a steel cylinder. The problem with this is much heavier than the other one, a very similar volume and these are available in different sizes. But this is a typical one for the small side here. The cylinder does not have a base on it, to stop people laying it down on the base. But then it would just lay flat, so it keeps it safe. And this would actually be stored in a case with padding or a bag that would be carried around.

The cylinder itself, as you look towards the top, it has some markings around the top. Now, these are the preset markings done in manufacturing. They'll stamp into the actual tank itself manufacturing date, the weight of the cylinder, maximum pressure, volume, and some other references along there.

Also with these cylinders, you would have to have them tested. Now, there are different rules and regulations regarding different types. So you would need to check locally exactly what testing is required of these cylinders, but they must be oxygen rated and also pressure tested in the correct way. So that the cylinder is actually sent away. It has a special system it goes through where it's pressure tested, and also then, it's oxygen cleaned, because you can't have any build-ups of deposits of carbons within the cylinder. Once it's actually been tested, it will then be covered with the correct stickers and also punched to say that it's actually been tested on a certain date, and when it then needs to be done again.

This is a training cylinder, so it hasn't got the markings on this. But have a look through, and on the download area of the website, we have put the latest guidelines on testing of this type of cylinder. On the top of the cylinder, you have got two sides to it. This side's the actual pin index side, the oxygen's coming out through the large hole at the top, and these two bottom ones are just locator pins. Pin index works by having two pins on the regulator, which you have got just here. And those two pins secure into this hole to make sure that it fits on nice and tightly. The clamp on the regulator will then fit into the hole on the back. So, all we are doing with this is taking the regulator, lining up the pins. You just do it so that the pins line up. And once the pins have been lined up, we can then clamp the regulator in place. And don't over tighten this, because the pressure of the oxygen coming out will hold that regulator in place.

This is a conventional or a basic regulator, and on here, you have got the barbed outlet, the gauge so you can see how much oxygen is left in the cylinder, and on the side here, a knob that you can turn around, and this goes from 0 to 15 litres per minute. On the top here, you have got the knob, where you can turn it on and off to increase the flow. Here what you do is to turn it on, bend it over, open it and, because of the same problems as the other ones, you don't want it to jam. And then once you're finished with it, close it off. Others will have a key type system on the top with a black key so you might find your kit is slightly different.

If you then just turn that off and try to take this off, it won't work, because it's held under pressure. So what you need to do is just once you have turned it off at the top, just purge out the oxygen, same as the other one we showed you, close that off, and then you can undo the regulator, remove that, and then take the cylinder and then lay that down safely.

Now, one variation on this... Pin index tends to be on the smaller cylinders. But larger cylinders of medical oxygen may well have a different type of connection on. It's a DIN connection or bullnose. What this would do is this is the connection you would have with the regulator and it screws into the tank. What we have got here is a converter that you could actually convert from DIN or bullnose over to the pin index system. It's something that may be used in certain applications in remote areas. But generally speaking, the cylinders that are coming through on the bullnose would have other connections on.

Now, have a look at the ones in your workplace. If you're working within, for example, the diving industry, then you'll have different types of systems here. But in the medical world, say, typically, this cylinder would not be used.